Bukhara seamstresses depending on technical devices divide golden sewing into several types. The main types are: “zarduzi-zaminduzi” – solid embroidery of golden background and “zarduzi - gulduzi” – pattern (flower) sewing. Besides, “zarduzi – gulduz - zaminduzi” – combined technique of sewing, “zarduzi - berishimduzi” – sewing, where silk motives alternate with golden patterns, and “zardusi - pulyakchaduzi”, in which golden sewing harmonize with the sewed spangles, are used.
The art of decorating clothes by gold in Bukhara is a centuries-old tradition. It was known about golden sewing from the written sources in the XIV century, and the patterns and colors of the wall paintings of the VI-VII centuries pointed on the fact that golden sewing existed in early Middle Ages.
Today you can see beautiful pieces of golden clothes of the XIX-XX centuries in the expositions of State Historical Museum of Uzbekistan, State Museum of Art of Uzbekistan, Museum of Applied Arts of Uzbekistan, State Historical Museum of the Temurids (Tashkent), Samarkand Historical and Cultural Museum after Ikramov A. Bukhara State Architectural and Art culture preserve has a rich collection of clothes. Museum models are served as beautiful cultural conserves of past generations, in which originality of forms and embroidery art are harmoniously combined.
Besides the clothes, the household items were decorated with golden sewing. They are: lula-bolish – bolsters, takyacha – pillowcases for pillows, djoypush – coverlets for a wedding bed, takhmonpush – curtains for niches, djoynamos – praying carpets, chimillik - curtains for separating the dwelling.
Much attention was paid to the decoration of head dresses; tyubeteika was the most widespread kind of hats. The specific Bukhara kind of tyubeteika is tyubeteika made from golden threads – kallapushi zarduzi, a part of the costume of the court aristocracy. And later it became the obligatory element of the wedding suite and boy’s dress on the occasion of his circumcision.
Today, with the revival of national traditions and workmanship, gold embroidery art regain a new life. Golden-embroidered men robes became the obligatory part of the wedding suit of a bridegroom, they are put on in the ceremonial events, are gifted to honorable guests and etc. Women short and long waistcoats, golden-embroidered tyubeteikas are popular, house shoes, belts, bags are decorated with golden threads. Today women are engaged in this kind of art. As before, the basis is the smooth velvet of bright colors, which gives the products a special effectiveness.
The most common techniques are gulduzi (embroidery of flowers) and zaminduzi (solid embroidery). A lot of new gold embroidery stitches, more than forty, is created. Traditions of art of gold embroidery are carefully passed down from generation to generation. This art inherited a wealth of ornamental motives, which have a lot of variants and bright decorative qualities. The task of the modern masters - to use this rich national artistic heritage, including that, stored in the museums today, and to create new images on this basis.
In recent decades the popularity of gold embroidery products has revived. A golden-embroidered gown is considered an essential gift for the anniversary.
Gold ornaments of Bukhara skilled craftsmen decorate the museum exhibitions in Uzbekistan, they are kept in the museums of foreign countries - Russia, India, Indonesia, China, Sri Lanka and others. Bukhara zarduzis are the indispensable participants of international exhibitions.